1 edition of cooperative, mutual and non-profit sector in the European Union. found in the catalog.
cooperative, mutual and non-profit sector in the European Union.
1997 by Commission of the European Communities, Statistical Office of the European Communities, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Bernan Associates [distributor] in Luxembourg, Lanham, MD .
Written in English
|Contributions||European Commission. DG XXIII., Statistical Office of the European Communities., European Commission. Enterprise Policy, Distributive trades, Tourism and Cooperatives.|
|LC Classifications||HD3484.A4 C66 1998|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||xv, 176 p. :|
|Number of Pages||176|
|LC Control Number||98124598|
National governments have responded by decentralizing in a variety of ways, by granting local autonomy; by increasing local resources; or by shifting functional responsibilities to sub-national governments. The third largest bank, Raiffeisenis a cooperative as well. To fill the gaps left by the withdrawal of the State, private initiative and organized self-help are becoming increasingly important. Works councils have rights, including the right to be consulted prior to major decisions and measures and the right of consent in the event of certain changes regarding terms of employment. Liberalization could lead to lower auditing fees if the auditing were carried out by cooperative federations, thus leaving cooperatives with the choice of which social programmes to offer to their members.
New forms of cooperatives are emerging in response to these problems. Political change The most prominent and far-reaching change in the political arena has been the decay of dogmatic socialism as a form of government, accompanied by the restructuring, privatization or cooperative up of large numbers of public institutions, state enterprises and collectives in many countries, which have brought about widespread upheavals and poverty. However, administrative decentralization and the transfer of real political decision-making power to the local level are not always met by the necessary corresponding allocation of additional financial resources to that level. Are there downsides that should be taken into account? Cooperatives as legal entities[ edit ] A cooperative is a legal entity owned and democratically controlled by its members. Self-help organizations formed spontaneously to solve the immediate problems of their members, including pre-cooperatives and informal groups, are more viable than imported structures which are not fully compatible with local standards of behaviour and do not necessarily serve the economic needs of the target group.
Among these conditions are: chronic hunger; malnutrition; illicit drug problems; organized crime; corruption; foreign occupation; armed conflicts; illicit arms trafficking, terrorism; intolerance and incitement to racial, ethnic, religious and other hatreds; mutual and non-profit sector in the European Union. book and endemic, communicable and chronic diseases. While these problems affect all countries, there is a general consensus that the situation of most developing countries — particularly of Africa — is critical and requires special attention and action and that these countries, which are undergoing fundamental political, economic and social transition including countries in the process of consolidating peace and democracyrequire the support of the international community. Governments and private enterprises often collaborate to formulate standards for industries; in doing so, the government leverages its buying power as a consumer to create standards. The answer to this question is very complex, but one thing is certain: much depends on the cooperatives themselves, on national policies and on how cooperatives take advantage of this immense opportunity to minimize possible threats. Profits are either reinvested into infrastructure or distributed to members in the form of "patronage" or "capital credits", which are essentially dividends paid on a member's investment into the cooperative.
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Limited equity housing cooperatives, which are often used by affordable housing developers, allow members to own some equity in their home, but limit the sale price of their membership share to that which they paid. They may also believe, especially if they have in-demand skills, that they have relatively more power to bargain with employers on their own.
In California, for example, the Warehouse Worker Resource Center is a non-profit organization that mutual and non-profit sector in the European Union. book on behalf of workers for higher wages and better working conditions in the logistics industry.
In short, the employment situation in the world remains largely grim and there is a pressing need for all countries to find new ways mutual and non-profit sector in the European Union. book overcome barriers to employment. Housing cooperatives come in three basic equity structures In market-rate housing cooperatives, members may sell their shares in the cooperative whenever they like for whatever price the market will bear, much like any other residential property.
Governments must therefore give cooperatives sufficient time and assess the cooperatives' capabilities before phasing out this support. In this "third" or alternative sector, the hierarchy of goals pursued is different from that of investor-driven enterprises.
Unlike worker cooperatives, they allow businesses with cooperative employees to join. While there has been a significant shift towards service sector cooperative in almost all economies, training systems, which have traditionally been geared to meeting the needs of the manufacturing sector, have been slow to adjust, and the introduction of comparable training for service sector activities has also been slow.
These communist cooperatives agricultural, handicraft and industrial collectives and consumer and housing cooperatives differed substantially from cooperatives in the Western industrialized countries.
In places like the UK, common ownership indivisible collective ownership was popular in the s. Economic effects The early phases of structural adjustment had a considerable impact upon many cooperatives. Meanwhile, local authorities in most countries need to develop the capacity and procedures to take advantage of the opportunity provided by decentralization.
Budd argues that meaningful worker participation in the decision-making process contributes to a variety of positive outcomes which culminate in enhanced productivity; and that voice is one of three mutually supportive pillars of a successful and enduring employment relations system along with efficiency and equity.
This may be illustrated by the following: In Zambia, the state marketing of agricultural products was stopped almost overnight whereas in Senegal, the State decided simply to dissolve state mechanisms and institutional structures of development and to transfer their functions directly to cooperative structures.
Another is globalization, at least in manufacturing, which has increased the credibility of employer threats of job loss in the event of employees unionizing.
Producer cooperative[ edit ] Producer cooperatives have producers as their members, and provide services involved in moving a product from the point of production to the point of consumption. Sector-based approaches The federal Status of the Artist Act seeks to improve the economic, social and political status of professional artists.
After building full-service social welfare states for decades, governments have been forced to cut down on expenditure because of the growing burden of public debts. Main articles: Housing cooperative and Building cooperative A housing cooperative is a legal mechanism for ownership of housing where residents either own shares share capital co-op reflecting their equity in the cooperative's real estate, or have membership and occupancy rights in a not-for-profit cooperative non-share capital co-opand they underwrite their housing through paying subscriptions or rent.
This means that, alongside the formal cooperative sector, there are now a variety of cooperatives in many countries. Credit unions, cooperative banking and co-operative insurance[ edit ] Main articles: Cooperative banking and Credit union The Co-operative Bank 's head office in Manchester.
Some of these limitations, which a cooperative form of business has are as follows: 1. Many of the long-established cooperative enterprises agricultural supply and marketing societies, credit societies, consumer, retail trader and craftsmen cooperatives, cooperatives of the liberal professions and housing cooperatives have grown into large-scale, professionally run and solidly financed enterprises in full competition with other commercial firms.
Known examples include the cranberry-and-grapefruit cooperative Ocean Spraycollective farms in socialist states and the kibbutzim in Israel. The Education Center is a Members Only benefit. The trend to have less but better paid jobs and to transfer jobs to countries with lower labour costs, thereby increasing the number of unemployed people living on social benefits, cannot continue much longer without causing serious social unrest.
Their central banks produce money free of cost for the money-creating activities of the banking sector. For instance, in Germany, the Suedwestmetall employers' federation reached a pilot agreement in with IG Metall, which represents workers in the metal and electrical industry, that allows for negotiations to regulate the use of temporary agency workers, including provisions regarding equal pay and requirements to offer such workers permanent employment Xhafa, However, despite all the precautions taken, genuine, cost-effective and well-performing cooperative societies can easily be undermined when they are used as institutional structures for the delivery of project-provided goods and services to target groups, as pointed out in a report of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations ECOSOC.
The agreement then establishes the minimum standards for the employees that it covers. This effectively means that the bank ceases to be a cooperative. Unionized workers are not eligible for support. National governments have responded by decentralizing in a variety of ways, by granting local autonomy; by increasing local resources; or by shifting functional responsibilities to sub-national governments.Feb 27, · )Central Bank • A central bank, reserve bank or monetary authority, is an entity responsible for the monetary policy of its country or of a group of member states, such as the European Central Bank (ECB) in the European Union, the Federal Reserve System in the United States of America, State Bank in Pakistan.
FATF has issued global, binding standards to prevent the misuse of virtual assets for money laundering and terrorist financing.
The standards ensure that virtual assets are treated fairly, applying the same safeguards as the financial sector. cooperatives, mutuals, and non-profit organizations); etc. In these fields CIRIEC seeks to offer information and opportunities mutual and non-profit sector in the European Union.
book mutual enrichment to practitioners and academics and to promote international reflection and action CIRIEC activities, publications .The cooperative banking sector had 20% pdf share of the European banking sector, but accounted for only 7 per cent of all the write-downs and losses between .A consortium is a group made up of two or more individuals, companies, or governments that work together to achieving a common objective.
Entities that participate in a consortium pool resources.FATF has ebook global, binding standards to prevent the misuse of virtual assets for money laundering and terrorist financing. The standards ensure that virtual assets are treated fairly, applying the same safeguards as the financial sector.